The exception applies only to employees who perform essentially religious functions, namely those whose primary duties consist of engaging in church governance, supervising a religious order, or conducting religious ritual, worship, or instruction. What if an employee objects on religious grounds to an employer-sponsored program? Moreover, although it would pose an undue hardship to require employees involuntarily to substitute for one another or swap shifts, the reasonable accommodation requirement can often be satisfied without undue hardship where a volunteer with substantially similar qualifications is available to cover, either for a single absence or for an extended period of time. Some courts have concluded that it would pose an undue hardship if an employer was required to accommodate a religious dress or grooming practice that conflicts with the public image the employer wishes to convey to customers. Religious beliefs include theistic beliefs i. The extent to which the expression is directed at a particular employee is relevant to determining whether or when it could reasonably be perceived to be severe or pervasive by that employee. Here are nine examples of Christian and non-Christian religious institutions and groups in the U. Even though individuals do not choose to have such attractions, they do choose how to respond to them. For example, a government employer may contend that granting a requested religious accommodation would pose an undue hardship because it would constitute government endorsement of religion in violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. If the accommodation solution is not immediately apparent, the employer should discuss the request with the employee to determine what accommodations might be effective. Islamic individuals and institutions fall on a wide spectrum, from welcoming and inclusive to a level of rejection that can be marked by Accommodations relating to payment of union dues or agency fees Absent undue hardship, Title VII requires employers and unions to accommodate an employee who holds religious objections to joining or financially supporting a union.
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